Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW): A Comprehensive Guide

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), commonly known as MIG (Metal Inert Gas) or MAG (Metal Active Gas) welding, is a versatile and widely used welding process in which an electric arc is established between a consumable wire electrode and the workpiece metal. This arc generates intense heat, causing the workpiece metal to melt and fuse […]

hydrogen cracking

Hydrogen Cracking Causes and Remedies

Hydrogen cracking, also known as hydrogen-induced cracking or HIC, is a common concern in various industries, particularly in the field of metalworking, welding, and construction. This phenomenon occurs when hydrogen atoms infiltrate the microstructure of a metal, causing it to become brittle and prone to cracking. Understanding the common causes and effective cures for hydrogen

hot cracking welding

What Is Hot Cracking (Solidification Cracking)?

Hot cracking is a metallurgical phenomenon that often occurs during welding and casting processes, leading to structural defects and compromised material integrity. Understanding hot cracking and its causes is crucial for engineers, welders, and anyone involved in the fabrication of metal components. In this blog, we will delve into the world of hot cracking weld

What Is Stress Strain Curve?

A stress-strain curve is a visual representation illustrating how a material behaves under increasing loads. Stress, which is the ratio of force to cross-sectional area, and strain, the ratio of a change in dimension length to the original length, are the defining factors in this graph. These curves can be constructed to examine how materials

Why E9015-B91 preferred over E9018-B91 for P91 welding?

Welding P91 material, a high-strength, heat-resistant alloy often used in high-temperature applications such as power plants, requires careful consideration of the welding process and the choice of welding electrodes. Both E9015-B91 and E9018-B91 electrodes can be used for this purpose, but E9015-B91 is preferred.

E347 is preferred over E321 welding of SS321?

The selection of a specific welding electrode for welding stainless steel, such as SS321, depends on various factors including the application, welding process, and the desired properties of the weld joint. E347 and E321 are both stainless steel welding electrodes, but they have different chemical compositions and are designed for different purposes: Chemical composition of

type of cracks

8 Most Common Welding Defects, Causes & Remedies

When weld defects form in a weld they can weaken the joint. In some cases, this results in complete failure of the weldment. In serious cases, there can be severe consequences to a failing weld. So, you need to understand the various common welding defects. But in addition, you must know how to prevent them from

taper-transition, dissimilar metal thickness welding

Taper Transition Requirement for Dissimilar Wall Thickness

In this article we will discuss about the taper transition requirement for dissimilar thickness as per ASME Section VIII Division 1: What is Taper Transition? Transition is formed by removing the material by grinding or machining from the thicker material section to match it with the thinner section’s thickness. When Taper Transition required? Taper transition

consumable calculation

Weld Consumable Calculator for “Single V Groove joint”

This article is regarding the benefits of weld consumable calculation. Steps to calculate weld consumable & we will calculate weld consumable for single “V” groove joint. You can also download our simplified weld consumable calculator for single V groove joints, Single V branch Joints, Fillet joints, deposition efficiency, electrode calculator for SMAW welding process, Importance

Welder Qualification (WPQ) as per ASME Section IX

For fabrication of any equipment we require welders and welding operators must be qualified as per the qualification standard referred by the construction code. Whenever construction is as per ASME construction codes (like ASME B31.1, B31.3 or ASME section VIII) ASME section IX is used for the qualification of the procedure and welder. Welder is

Set in

Welder’s Diameter Restrictions and Position Qualified

This article is about diameter restrictions and welding position qualification involves in welder and welding operator qualification as per ASME Section IX. Diameter Restriction for Welder Qualification (as per QW-303) 1) If welder is qualified by groove weld during test, then the qualification range will be below (as per table QW-452.3 and table QW-452.6) Note:

bend test

Mechanical Testing Requirement as per ASME BPVC Section IX

This article will cover the essential mechanical testing procedures outlined in ASME BPVC Section IX (ASME section 9)for the qualification of a groove weld PQR (Procedure Qualification Record), including details on specimen extraction location, the objectives of the testing, and criteria for acceptance. Testing Requirement: QW-451 outlines the specific type and quantity of test specimens

Welding position

Welding Positions

This article is about Welding Position involved in fabrication of Pressure Vessel, Piping and Pipelines. Different welding standard specifies different welding positions for welder. Welding position is specified as per the position of work piece before and during welding. Position of welding is specified in ASME section IX and EN ISO 6947. Welding position is

𝐅𝐞𝐫𝐫𝐢𝐭𝐞 𝐓𝐞𝐬𝐭𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐨𝐟 𝐒𝐭𝐚𝐢𝐧𝐥𝐞𝐬𝐬 𝐒𝐭𝐞𝐞𝐥𝐬

Ferrite testing, also known as a ferritescope test, is a fast and non-destructive inspection technique used to measure delta ferrite levels in austenitic stainless steel and duplex stainless steel materials. Maintaining the correct ferrite content is crucial for ensuring corrosion resistance, durability, and preventing cracks in the material. Exceeding the maximum allowable ferrite content can


There are several methods available for joining metals, including welding, brazing and soldering. What is the difference between welding and brazing? What is the difference between brazing and soldering? Let’s explore the distinctions plus comparative advantages as well as common applications. This discussion will deepen your understanding of metal joining and help you identify the

Hardness Testing: Definition, How It Works, Types, and Benefits

Hardness refers to the resistance of a material to deformation, particularly when subjected to various forms of external forces like compression, indentation, scratching, or abrasion. It’s an essential mechanical property that indicates the material’s ability to withstand such forces without undergoing permanent deformation or damage. Hardness is influenced by factors such as the material’s composition,


Guide to Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI)

Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) stands as a crucial nondestructive testing process utilized to detect surface and shallow subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials. These materials encompass iron, nickel, cobalt, and certain alloys susceptible to magnetization. The method involves establishing a magnetic field within the test object, achieved through direct or indirect magnetization. Direct magnetization passes electric

saw welding

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a proficient welding technique that employs a continuous feed of tubular electrode to fuse two metals by generating heat through the interaction between the electrode and the metal. To shield the arc and molten zone from atmospheric contaminants, the welding process submerges them beneath a protective layer of granular flux.

iron carbon diagram

Effect of Alloying Elements on Steel

Steel, a fundamental material in modern industrial applications, owes its versatility and performance to the careful inclusion of various alloying elements. Alloying elements are introduced to steel to alter its properties, enhancing its strength, durability, corrosion resistance, and other crucial characteristics. Steels are manufactured by combining iron with carbon, a process integral to steelmaking. The

butt joints

Nomenclature and Components of Butt and Fillet Welds

Welding, a fundamental process in metal fabrication and construction, involves joining metal components through the application of heat and pressure. Two common types of welds, butt and fillet welds, are integral in creating strong, durable joints. Understanding nomenclature and components of Butt and Fillet Welds is crucial for welders and engineers to ensure the integrity

Comparison of Rutile and Cellulosic Electrodes

“Varieties of Electrodes and Their Constituents” There is a wide array of manual metal arc (MMA) electrodes available, grouped into three categories based on their primary flux component: cellulosic, rutile, and basic. These electrodes typically consist of a core wire, usually 2.5–6mm in diameter, coated with flux. The core wire is commonly crafted from low-quality

Avoiding porosity in aluminium welding

Porosity formation within aluminium welding arises from the entrapment of gases in the molten weld pool, unable to escape before solidification. The chief concern is hydrogen, sourced from contaminants like hydrocarbons (e.g., grease, skin oils) or moisture, breaking down within the arc plasma to generate atomic hydrogen. Hydrogen readily dissolves in molten aluminium but exhibits